Health Effects of Water Contamination and How to Deal With Them

Water, essential for life, is the foundation of public health. However, a closer examination reveals a disconcerting truth. Water contamination poses a pervasive threat, with implications for the well-being of communities across the United States.

The latest data from the EPA’s testing program is a stark revelation. It pinpoints 220 water systems across the country where varying levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), have infiltrated the drinking water.

Health Effects of Water Contamination and How to Deal With Them


This means that approximately one in 10 drinking water systems in the United States grapple with the presence of these hazardous substances. Furthermore, the scope of contamination extends beyond PFOA and PFOS. When considering all 29 forever chemicals, it is estimated that the drinking water of around 26 million Americans is compromised.

In this article, we will discuss the health effects of water contamination and strategies for dealing with them.

Health Effects of Water Contamination

Water contamination poses a multifaceted threat to public health, encompassing both immediate and long-term consequences. Acute exposure to contaminated water can manifest in gastrointestinal illnesses, causing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

However, the insidious nature of certain contaminants, such as PFAS or ‘forever chemicals,’ introduces a spectrum of chronic health effects.

BBC reports that PFAS, found in products like non-stick frying pans and clothing, has prompted experts to call for stricter limits in drinking water. High doses of PFAS have been associated with severe health concerns, including cancer and fertility issues.

These ‘forever chemicals‘ enter waterways when treated products break down, raising alarm for human health and the impact on wildlife.

Moreover, vulnerable populations, such as children, pregnant women, and the elderly, face heightened risks. Exposure to contaminated water can exacerbate existing health conditions, posing a disproportionate threat to those with compromised immune systems.

Specific Contaminants and Their Health Impacts

The health impacts of water contamination vary widely, with specific contaminants leaving a trail of detrimental effects on human well-being. Among the common culprits are bacteria and viruses, leading to waterborne diseases that in severe cases can cause life-threatening illnesses.

Heavy metals, including lead and mercury, pose risks to neurological development, especially in children, and can result in cognitive impairments.

Pesticides, utilized in agriculture, seep into water sources, potentially causing reproductive issues and neurological disorders.

A poignant example of the severe health repercussions of water contamination is the Camp Lejeune water incident. Spanning over three decades, this military base in North Carolina subjected its residents to a toxic water supply.

The water systems at Camp Lejeune were contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE). These contaminants have been implicated in a range of health issues, including cancers and neurological disorders.

TorHoerman Law notes that the Honoring Our PACT Act, signed into law by President Joe Biden in 2022, brought a measure of justice. Section 804, known as the Camp Lejeune Justice Act of 2022, empowered victims to file claims against the federal government.

This legal avenue allows victims to seek compensation for the damages incurred due to prolonged exposure to contaminated water. While specific settlement amounts are yet to be determined, the anticipated payout for Camp Lejeune lawsuits underscores the gravity of the health impacts suffered.

The pursuit of justice represents a critical step in addressing the health consequences of specific water contaminants.

Identifying Water Contamination

Recognizing water contamination is crucial to safeguarding public health. While some contaminants may be undetectable without testing, several signs and symptoms can indicate potential contamination. They include:

  • Taste: An unusual taste in drinking water, such as a metallic or chemical flavor, may signal the presence of contaminants.
  • Odor: A foul or pungent odor emanating from water can indicate contamination by bacteria, chemicals, or sewage.
  • Color: Discoloration of water, such as a cloudy or yellow appearance, may suggest the presence of sediment, minerals, or contaminants.

Even in the absence of noticeable sensory changes, regular water testing is essential to detect contamination early on. Waterborne pathogens and contaminants may not always produce immediate symptoms, making testing crucial for preventive measures.

Community water systems are typically subject to regular testing. However, private well owners should consider testing their water annually if there are contamination concerns.

How to Deal with Water Contamination

Addressing water contamination requires a comprehensive strategy tailored to the specific contaminant and the degree of contamination. According to Environmental Factor, filtration systems, such as pitcher filters, emerge as effective instruments for water purification and contaminant removal.

Purification tablets offer another valuable intervention, providing a convenient and portable solution for disinfecting water during emergencies. Boiling water remains a proven method capable of eliminating numerous waterborne pathogens. However, the selection of a treatment method should align with the contaminant type and the severity of contamination.

In California, researchers have partnered with the Community Water Center to create the Drinking Water Tool. The tool is an innovative web portal empowering communities, especially those in marginalized areas. This interactive platform furnishes information on water testing and treatment options and encourages engagement with local water boards.


As we navigate the landscape of water contamination, it is essential to advocate for resources that empower communities to protect their water sources.

Through collective awareness and continued research, we can pave the way for a future where clean water is a fundamental right for all. The journey towards water security is ongoing, fueled by the commitment to environmental stewardship and the well-being of communities worldwide.

You May Also Like